Knowledge Update

New era of medical sciences with DNA gene sequencing

A human cell is a generally defined as a basic structural, efficient and genetic unit of human. In human cell structure a gene is defined as a chain of nucleotides in either Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA) or Ribonucleic acid (RNA) it is generally used to code a molecule that has function.

In recent times, there have been great advancements in genomic studies with regard to DNA gene sequencing. There are different types of genome data sequences which exist in various sources. These genome sequences are mainly used for the research studies. These researches are associated to identify the genetic disorders and other gene related genealogies. Researchers used recent techniques to identify technological trends for gene therapy treatments. [1]

DNA is the genomic blueprint of every individual in the universe. It has two long strands of nucleotides and each nucleotide is made of different elements such as group of phosphate, deoxyribose sugar and base nitrogenous elements[2]. Sequences of nitrogenous base[3] contains A, G, C and T. A stands for ‘Adenine’, similarly G, C and T stands for ‘Guanine’, ‘Cytosine’ and ‘Thymine’ respectively. An ‘Adenine’ ties through ‘Thymine’ and ‘Guanine’ bonded with ‘Cytosine’.

A gene is considered as a basic unit of hereditary characteristics. This determines the functional and as well as physical part of the heredity process. Normally genes are composed of different sequence of nucleotides. The genes are capable of creating different types of DNA sequences by themselves. In DNA one percent is made up of protein coding called genes, the rest of DNA are non-coded genes. These coded and non-coded elements are used for diagnosis of health disorder predictions this forms the basis of gene data analysis. These DNA sequences are also called as genotypes. A human chromosome contains millions of basic DNA sets, which are the DNA sequences with numerous gene sequences.

The DNA sequence analysis contains various techniques and methods to identify the different features, functionalities, forms and structures of the DNA genomic elements. Several methods like sequence alignments, biological data searches and analytical methods were used to generate the sequence analysis.

Gene sequencing process becomes crucial for basic and advanced biological researches. The following table represents some of the well applied areas of genomic study and associated areas which include medical diagnosis for health disorders, bio technology, virology (study related to viruses), forensic sciences and biological system related methodologies etc. Gene sequencing also places a major role in protein sequencing which helps in diagnosing mutation disorders.

The Gene sequencing process places a major role in all the above fields to determine the key elements responsible for the disease prediction and disorders. In the field of virology it is used to make studies about the immunology patterns of the host cells. In forensic biology DNA Profiling [4] gives clear picture in identification of human race, sex, age group without examining the actual person. It also helps in comparison of parental characteristics with those of the succeeding generation to find out all hereditary characteristics in their generation.

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This is an introductory portion of advancements in medical sciences with DNA sequencing, applications of genomic study and research are also listed. The basic elements of DNA, gene and gene sequence data analysis is also been detailed. Now let’s learn about gene sequence data analysis, it will direct to be a data doctor with medical diagnosis or forensic sciences.

REFERENCES:

1. Data Mining Techniques Could Improve Cancer Gene Therapies- https://healthitanalytics.com/news/data-mining-techniques-could-improve-cancer-gene-therapies
2. Soukup, Garrett A. (2003), "Nucleic Acids: General Properties", eLS, American Cancer Society, doi:10.1038/npg.els.0001335, ISBN 9780470015902
3. Nitrogenous base - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nitrogenous_base
4. DNA profiling- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/DNA_profiling

Dr. Vijay Arputharaj is a Lecturer I of Computer and Information Science in Skyline University Nigeria. He has a PhD. in Computer Science, from Bharathiar University, Coimbatore, India.

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